عنوان مقاله [English]
In the world of pharmacology, along with the discovery of new antibiotics, bacteria also gain features that antibiotics are ineffective against, and the issue of bacterial resistance in such a situation arises. Venom of animals have anti-bacterial effects among which, honey bee venom has therapeutic effects including anti-cancer, anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude venom of honey bee and its fractions on bacteria. In this study, the antibacterial activity of honey bee venom (Apis mellifera) and its fractions against five bacterial species including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhyimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudo mallei was investigated. In this regard, different volumes of crude venom and two fractions which were obtained by gel filtration with standard antibiotic as positive controls by disc-diffusion method were evaluated and the inhibition zone was measured. The results showed that crude venom of honey bee and its fractions have a positive effect on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. The inhibition zone around the disc in concentrations of 25, 35 and 45 µl for Escherichia coli was about 7, 10 and 14 mm and for Salmonella typhimurium was about 7, 9 and 12, respectively. This venom and its fractions had no effect on the other tested bacteria. Statistical analysis showed that p-value was less than 0.05. Analysis of the venom volume and the test samples proved that increasing the venom volume leads to a relative increase in anti-bacterial effect.
1- Dathe, M. and Wieprecht, T. (1999); Structural feature of helical antimicrobial peptides: their potential to modulate activity on model membranes and biological cells. Biochim Biophysica Acta J 1462: 71-87.
2- Battistuzzi, F.U., Feijao, A. and Hedges, S.B. (2004); A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land. BMC Evol Biol 4: 44-49.
3- Luo, F., Sun, X., Qu, Z. and Zhang, X. (2016); Salmonella typhimurium-induced M1 macrophage polarization is dependent on the bacterial O antigen. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 32(2): 22-27.
4- Oh, M.H., Park, B.Y., Jo, H., Lee, S., Lee, H., Choi, K.H. and Yoon, Y. (2014); Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomona spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 34(5): 591-596.
5- Malik, P., Singha, H., Goyal, S.K., Khurana, S.K., Tripathi, B.N., Dutt, A., et al. (2015); Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India. Vet Rec Open 24(2): 87-94.
6- Kuhn-Nentwig, L. (2003); Antimicrobial and cytolytic peptides of venomous arthropods. Cellular and molecular life sciences 60: 2651-2668.
7- Choi, J.H., Jang, A.Y., Lin, S., Lim, S., Kim, D., Park, K., et al. (2015); Melittin, a honeybee venom derived antimicrobial peptide, may target methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Mol Med Rep 12(5): 6483-6490.
8- Mirshafiey, M. (2007); Venom therapy in multiple sclerosis, A Review. Neuropharmacology 53: 353-361.
9- Hider, R.C. (1988); Honeybee venom: A rich source of pharmacologically active peptides. Endeavour 12(2): 60-65.
10- Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. and Randall, R.J. (1951); Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265-275.
11- Babaie, M., Zolfagharian, H., Salmanizadeh, H., Mirakabadi, A. Z. and Alizadeh, H. (2013); Isolation and partial purification of anticoagulant fractions from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus. Acta Biochimica Polonica 60(1): 17-20.
12- Boorn, K.L., Khor, Y.Y., Sweetman, E., Tan, F., Heard, T.A. and Hammer, K.A. (2010); Antimicrobial activity of honey from the stingless bee Trigona carbonaria determined by agar diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and time-kill methodology. J Appl Microbiol 108(5): 1534-1543.
13- Altmann, F., Kubelka, V., Staudacher, E., Uhl, K. and Marz, L. (1991); Characterization of the isoforms of Phospholipase A2 from honeybee venom. Insect Biochem 21(5): 467-472.
14- Hegazi, A.G., Feel, M.A., Abdel-Rahman, E.H. Al-Fattah, A.M. (2015); Antibacterial activity of bee venom collected from Apis mellifera carniolan pure and hybrid races by two collection methods. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 4(4): 141-149.
15- Yan, L. and Adams, E. (1998); Lycotoxin, antimicrobial peptid from venom of wolf spider Lycosa carolinensis. J Biol Chem 273: 2059-2064.
16- Leandro, L.F., Mendes, C.A., Casemiro, L.A., Vinholis, A.H., Cunha, W.R., de Almeida, R., et al. (2015); Antimicrobial activity of apitoxin, melittin and phospholipase A₂ of honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom against oral pathogens. An Acad Bras Cienc 87(1): 147-155.
17- Sahayaraj, K., Borgio, J.F., Muthukumar, S. and Anandh, P. (2006); Antibacterial activity of Rhynocoris marginatus and Catamirus brevipennis venoms against human pathogens. J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis 12: 487-496.
18- Nahed, M.A. and Amany, M.H. (2010); Bee Venom-Lead Acetate Toxicity Interaction. Aust J Basic & Appl Sci 4(8): 2206-2221.
19- Pimentel, R.B., da Costa, C.A., Albuquerque, P.M., Junior, S.D. (2013); Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey. BMC Complement Altern Med 1(13): 151-158.
20- Al Samie Mohamed Ali, M.A. (2012); Studies on bee venom and its medical uses. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology 1(2): 1-15.