تأثیر برگ زیتون بر فشار خون، عملکرد و پارامترهای بیوشیمیایی سرم خون در جوجه‌های گوشتی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تغذیه دام، گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 استاد گروه پرورش و تولید طیور، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 استادیار گروه پرورش و تولید طیور، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

4 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات علوم دامی کشور، کرج

5 استاد گروه علوم درمانگاهی، دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

چکیده

این آزمایش به منظور بررسی اثرات برگ زیتون بر روی میزان فشار خون، لیپیدهای سرم خون و عملکرد جوجه ‌های گوشتی اجراء شد. تعداد 500 قطعه جوجه نر گوشتی یکروزه سویه آرین در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی متعادل با 5 تیمار آزمایشی (جیره غذایی) و 4 تکرار و 25 جوجه در هر تکرار به مدت 42 روز مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. تیمارهای غذایی شامل جیره پایه، جیره پایه و داروی فشار خون (پروپرانولول)، جیره پایه و سطوح 5/0، 1 و 5/1 درصد پودر برگ زیتون بود. جیره ‌ها بر اساس راهنمای تغذیه جوجه ‌گوشتی آرین تنظیم شدند. صفات فشار خون سرخرگی، فاکتورهای بیوشیمیایی سرم خون شامل کلسترول، تری‌گلیسرید، لیپوپروتئین با چگالی کم (LDL)، لیپوپروتئین با چگالی بالا (HDL)، گلوکز، پروتئین و فاکتورهای عملکردی اندازه ‌گیری شدند. فشار خون در پایان دوره آزمایش با استفاده از دستگاه آشکار ساز جریان عروق مدل BV102R SONICAID متصل به پروب 5/5 مگاهرتز، اسفینگمومانومتر و کاف نوزاد اندازه‌ گیری شد. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که اختلاف فشار خون سرخرگی در بین تیمارها معنی ‌دار بود(05/0 >p) به طوری که بیشترین و کمترین مقدار فشار خون به ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای جیره پایه و داروی فشار خون بود. تیمارهای غذایی بر روی مقدار کلسترول، تری گلیسرید، LDL  و تلفات تأثیر معنی داری(05/0 >p) داشتند اما بر روی مقدار HDL، گلوکز و پروتئین تام تاثیری نداشتند. بنابر این به منظور کاهش فشار خون، کلسترول، تری گلیسرید، LDL، تلفات و بهبود شاخص تولید مقدار 1 تا 5/1 درصد برگ زیتون در جیره‌ غذایی جوجه‌ ‎های گوشتی می ‌تواند مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of olive leaves on blood pressure, growth performance and biochemical blood parameters in broiler chickens

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.A Varmaghany 1
  • SH Rahimi 2
  • M.A Karimi Torshizi 3
  • H Lotfollahian 4
  • M Hassanzadeh 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
2 Professor of Poultry Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
3 Assistant Professor of Poultry Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran
4 Assiastant Professor of Animal Science Research Institute, Karaj
5 Professor of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to indicate the effects of olive leaves on arterial blood pressure, blood lipids and growth performance in broiler chickens. Experiment was conducted with 5 treatments and 4 replicates with 25 birds per each replicate in a completely randomized design with over all 500 male Arian strain 1-day old broilers. The period of study was 42 d. Treatments were control, drug of anti-hypertension propranolol (4 mg/kg BW) and 0.5, 1 and 1.5% olive leaf in diets. The growth performance, blood pressure, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, HDLcholesterol, glucose and total protein in serum were measured. Blood pressure was determined on brachial artery of all conscious birds at the end of 42 d with instruments of vascular flow detector SONICAID BV102R and baby cuff. The results of this experiment indicated that, there were significant effect of olive leaf on blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and mortality (p<0.05), but no significant effect on serum HDLcholesterol, glucose and total protein in broiler chickens. According to results of this experiment, in order to reduce blood pressure, serum lipids, mortality and improvement of production efficiency, use of olive leaf up to 1.5% in broilers diet could be recommended.

1- Altiokit, E., Baycin, D., Bayraktar, O. and Ulku, S. (2008) Isolation of polyphenols from the extracts of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) by adsorption on silk fibroin. Sep. Purif. Technol. 62: 342 - 348.##

2- Association of Official Analytical Chemist. (AOAC) (1990)15th Edition. USA.##

3- Botsoglou, N.A., Florou, P., Christaki, E., Fletouris, D.J. and Spais, A.B. (2002) Effect of dietary oregano essential oil on performance of chickens and on iron-induced lipid oxidation of breast, Tight and abdominal fat tissues. Brit. Poutl. Sci. 42: 230 - 233.##

4- Bouaziz M, Fki, I., Jemai, H., Ayadi, M. and Sayadi, S. (2008) Effect of storage on refined and husk olive oils composition: Stabilization by addition of natural antioxidants from chemlali olive leaves. Food Chem. 108: 253 – 262.##

5- Boudhrioua, N., Bahloul, N., Slimen, I.B. and Kechhaou, N. (2009) Comparison on the total phenol contents and the color of fresh and infrared dried olive leaves. Ind. Crop. Prod. 29: 412 - 419.##

6- Canan, B.S. and Kuddusi, E.M. (2006) Effect of dietary thyme (Thymus vulgaris) on laying hen performance and Escherichia coli concentration in feces. J. Nutr. Sci. 12: 55 - 58.##

7- Dakshinamurti, K. and Dakshinamurti, S. (2001) Blood pressure regulation and micronutrients. Nut. Res. Rev. 14: 3 - 43.##

8- Delgado-pertinez, M., Gomez-Cabrera, A. and Garrido, A. (2000) Predicting the nutritive value of the olive leaf (Olea europaea): Digestibility and chemical composition and in vitro studies. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 2000; 87: 187 - 201.##

9- Eidi, A., Eidi, M., Oryan, S.H., Fallahyan, F., Darounkala, R.D. (2004) Hypoglycaemic effect of alcoholic extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf in healthy and diabetic male rats. J. Med. Plant. 3: 36 - 40.##

10- Esmaeili, M., Delphan, B., Tavakkoli, A., Tarrahi, M.J. (2003) Effect of Morus nigra L., Trigonella foenum - graecum L. Seed and olive leaf extract on plasma level of cholesterol and lipid layers in rabbit aortic wall. Yafteh J. (Lorestan University of Medical Sciences) 16: 3 - 9..##

11- Hansen, K., Adsersen, A., Christensen, S.B., Jensen, S.R., Nyman, U. and Smitt, U.W. (1996)  Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor from Olea europaea and Olea lancea. Phytomedicine. 2 (4): 319 - 325.##

12- Huang, P.L., Huang, P.L. and Huang, S.L.(2010) Oleuropein and related compounds reduce atherosclerosis. Open Conference Proceedings J. 1: 81 - 86.##

13- Jang, I.S., Ko, Y.H., Kang, S.Y. and Lee, C.Y. (2006) Effect of commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. and Tech. 143: 304 - 315.##

14- Julian, J.R. (2005) Production and growth related disorders and other metabolic diseases of poultry – A review. Vet. J. 169: 350 - 369.##

15-Julius, S. (1996) The evidence for a pathophysiologic significance of the sympathetic overactivity in hypertension. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 1996; 18: 305 - 321.##

16- Laguerre, M., Lopez Giraldo, L.J., Piombo, G., Figueroa-Espinoza, M.C., Pina, M., Benaissa, M., Combe, A., Castera, A. R., Lecomte, J. and Villeneuve, P.(2009) Characterization of olive-leaf phenolics by ESI-MS and evaluation of their antioxidant capacities by the cat assay. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 86: 1215 - 1225.##

17- Lampert, R., Lckovics, R.J., Viscoli, J.C., Hoewitz, I.R. and Lee, A.F.(2003) Effects of propranolol on recovery of heart rate  variability following acute myocardial infarction and relation to outcome in the beta-blocker heart attack trial. Am. J. Cardiol. 91: 137 - 142.##

18- Lee, K.W., Everts, H. and Beynen, A.C. (2004) Essential oils in broiler nutrition. Int. J. poult. Sci. 3: 738 - 752.##

19- Maggio, F., DeFrancesco, T.C., Atkins, C.E., Pizzirani, S., Gilger, B.C. and Davidson, M.G.(2000) Ocular lesions associated with systemic hypertension in cats: 69 cases (1985–1998). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 217: 695 - 702.##

20- Manna, C., Migliardi, V., Golino, P., Scognamiglio, A., Galletti, P., Chiariello, M. and Zappia, V. (2004) Oleuropein prevents oxidative myocardial injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion. J. Nutr. Biochem. 15 (8): 461 - 466.##

21- Martın Garcıa, A.I., Yanez Ruiz, D.R., Moumen, A. and Molina Alcaide, E.(2006) Effect of polyethylene glycol, urea and sunflower meal on olive (Olea europaea var. europaea) leaf fermentation in continuous fermentors. Small Rumin. Res. 61: 53 - 61.##

22- Maxwell, M.H. and Robertson, G.W. (1997) World broiler ascites survey. Poultry Int. 36: 16 - 30.##

23- Motaghitalab, M., Jamshidzehy, M. (2006) Effects of olive leaf powder extract as substitution for antibiotics on broiler performances. The 2nd Iranian Congress on Animal Science. 1: 831 - 834.##

24- Omar, S.H. (2010) Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects. Sci. Pharm. 78: 133 - 154.##

25- Paiva-Martins, F., Barbosa, S., Pinheiro, V., Mourao, J.L. and Outor-Monteiro, D. (2009) The effect of olive leaves supplementation on the feed digestibility, growth performances of pigs and quality of pork meat. Meat Sci. 82: 438 - 443.##

26- Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, T., Busjahn, A., Schmidlin, C., Schmidt, A., Bradl, A. and Aydogan, C. (2008) Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Phytother. Res. 22: 1239 - 1242.##

27- Richmond, W. (1973) Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin Chem. 19: 1350 - 1356. ##

28- Saberi, M., Kazemi Salehi, D. and Blorian, V. (2008) The effect of olive leaf on low or moderate blood pressure and resistant to traditional treatments. J. Med. Plant. 3(23): 52 - 59.##

29- SAS (1990) SAS/STAT® User’s guide, release 6.03 edition. SAS institute Inc., Cary, NC.##

30- Scheffler, A., Rauwald, H.W., Kampa, B., Mann, U., Mohr, F.W. and Dhein, S. (2008) Olea europaea leaf extract exerts L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonistic effects. J. Ethnopharmacol. 120: 233 - 240.##

31- Sibald, I.R. (1976). A bioassay for true metabolizable energy in feedstuffs. Poult. Sci, 55:303-308.##

32- Somova, L.I., Shode, F.O., Ramnanan, P. and Nadir, A. (2003) Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves. J. Ethnopharmacol. 84: 299 - 305.##

33- Susalit, E., Agusb, N., Effendia, E., Tjandrawinatac, R. R., Nofiarnyc, D., Perrinjaquet-Moccettid, T. and Verbruggend, M. (2011) Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: Comparison with captopril. Phytomedicine. 18: 251 - 258.##

34- Tankson, J.D., Thaxton, J.P. and Vizzier-Thaxton, Y. (2002) Biochemical and  immunological changes in chickens experiencing pulmonary hypertension syndrome caused by Enterococcus faecalis. Poult. Sci. 81: 1826 - 1831.##

35- Terrill, T., Rowan, M.A., Douglas, B.G. and Barry, N.T. (1992) Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrate meals and cereals grains. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58: 321 - 329.##

36- Visioli, F., Bellomo, G., Montedoro, G., Galli, C. (1995) Low density lipoprotein oxidation is inhibited in vitro by olive oil constituents. Atherosclerosis. 117: 25 - 32.##

37- Visioli, F., Bellosta, S. and Galli, C. (1998) Oleuropein, the bitter principle of olives, enhances nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Life Sci. 62: 541 - 546. ##