بررسی اثر ضد انگلی عصاره‌های آبی زنجبیل و شیرین‌بیان بر روی تک یاخته نئوسپورا کانینوم

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 گروه بیوشیمی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد شیراز

2 موسسه تحقیقات سرم و واکسن‌سازی رازی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

تک‌یاخته نئوسپورا کانینوم، عامل بیماری نئوسپوروزیس، انگل داخل سلولی اجباری می‌باشد. عفونت نئوسپوروزیس انتشار جهانی داشته و باعث آلودگی جانوران مختلف از جمله گاو، گوسفند، بز،سگ و گوزن می‌شود. روش‌های کنترل بیماری شامل حذف جانوران آلوده، درمان آنتی‌بیوتیکی و واکسیناسیون است. نبود داروی مناسب و عدم وجود واکسن مؤثر، ما را بر آن داشت تا تأثیرات ضد انگلی عصاره زنجبیل و شیرین بیان را بر روی انگل نئوسپورا  بررسی نماییم. برای این منظور، دوزهای مختلف از عصاره‌های آبی زنجبیل و شیرین بیان تهیه گردید، و دوز غیر سمی هر دو عصاره‌های آبی، بر سلول Vero با استفاده از روش MTT مشخص شد.در مرحله بعد  اثر عصاره‌های آبی زنجبیل و شیرین بیان  بر تک‌یاخته  نئوسپورا کانینوم، در تخم‌مرغ جنین‌دار بررسی شد. با استفاده از روش MTT نشان داده شد که شیرین بیان و زنجبیل  هر دو در غلظت 625/0میلی‌گرم در میلی‌لیتر بر سلول‌های Vero هیچ گونه سمیتی ندارند. همچنین در مطالعه روی تخم مرغ جنین‌دار مشخص گردیدکه در گروه‌هایی که کلیندامایسین و شیرین بیان استفاده شد، تلفات وجود دارد، در حالی‌که زنجبیل مانع ایجاد تلفات ناشی از نئوسپوروزیس در تخم مرغ جنین دار میشود. گزارشات قبلی تاثیر زنجبیل را روی تک یاخته توکسوپلاسما ثابت کرده بود. در این مطالعه نیز اثر مهاری این گیاه بخوبی بروی تک یاخته نئوسپورا نشان داده شد. در ضمن برای اولین بار از تخم‌مرغ جنین‌دار برای ارزیابی داروی موثر روی این تک‌یاخته استفاده شد. هر دوی این یافته‌ها می‌تواند در تحقیقات کاربردی جهت تهیه داروی موثر برای کنترل و درمان نئوسپوروزیس مفید واقع گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of antiparasitic effects of Ginger and Glycyrrhizin aqua extracts against Neospora caninum

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nasrin Rafei 1
  • Mehdi Namavari 2
1 Group Bioshimi, Islamic Azad University Branch Shiraz
2 Shiraz Branch, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Neospora caninum, the cause of Neosporosis, is an obligate intracellular parasite. Neosporosis infection has worldwide distribution and infect many animals such as cattle, sheep, goat and deer. The control methods of disease are included test and cull, antibiotic treatment and vaccination. The lack of proper drugs and the absence of effective vaccines led us to evaluate the anti neospora effects of Ginger and Glycyrrhizin aqua extracts. In this study, different doses of two herbal extracts were prepared. At first the cytotoxicity of aqua extracts was evaluated on Vero cell line by MTT assay. Then their effects on parasite were tested in chicken embryonated eggs. The results showed that Ginger and Glycyrrhizin aqua extract, have no cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line in 0.625 mg/ml dose. Also, in the study on embryonic eggs, there were casualties in the groups that used clindamycin and Glycyrrhizin,while the ginger prevents losses due to the neosporosis in chicken embryonated eggs. Previous reports had proved the effect of ginger on Toxoplasma gondii .In this study, the inhibitory effect of this plant was also shown on Neospora caninum. In addition, for the first time embryonated eggs were used to evaluate drug effects on Neospora caninum. Both of these findings can be useful in applied research for the preparation of an effective drug for the control and treatment of neosporosis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Neospora caninum
  • MTT
  • Aqua extract
  • Ginger
  • Glycyrrhizin
  • Chicken embryonated egg

1. Abdollahi S, Kazemi M. Designing of ELISA kit for diagnosis of anti-Toxoplasma Specific IgG, using exerted/secreted antigens and its J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2008; 17 (62) :14-20
2. Armanini, D., Bonanni G. and Palermo M. 1999. Reduction of serum testosterone in men by licorice. New England Journal of Medicine, 341: 1158-1158.
3. Bjerkas, I., Mohn, S.F., Presthus, J. 1984. Unidentified cyst-forming-sporozoon causing encephalomyelitis and myositis in dogs. Z Parasitenkd, 70: 271-274.
4. Chen, M., Theander, T. G., Christensen, S. B., Hviid, L., Zhai, L. and Kharazmi, A. 1994. Licochalcone A, a new antimalarial agent, inhibits in vitro growth of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and protects mice from P. yoelii infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherap, 38: 1470-1475.
5. Choi, W., M. Jiang and J. Chu. 2013. Antiparasitic effects of Zingiber officinale (Ginger) extract against Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Applied Biomedicine, 11(1): 15-26.
6. Debache, K. and Hemphill, A. 2013. Differential effects of intranasal vaccination with recombinant NcPDI in different mouse models of Neospora caninum infection. Parasite immunology, 35: 11-20.
7. Dubey, J. P. 2003. Review of Neospora caninum and neosporosis in animals. The Korean journal of parasitology, 16: 41.
8. Dubey, J.P., Schares, G. 2006. Diagnosis of bovine neosporosis. Veterinary Parasitology, 31:1-34.
9. Dubey, J.P., Schares, G., Ortega-Mora, L.M. 2007. Epidemiology and control of neosporosis and Neospora caninum. Clinical Microbiology Revew, 20:323–367.
10. Forouzan, S., Bahmani, M., Parsae, P., Mohsenzadegan, A., Gholami-Ahangaran, M., and Sadeghi, E. 2012. Anti-parasitic activites of Zingiber officinale methanolic extract on Limnatis nilotica. Global Veterinary, 9: 144-148.
11. Furuta, P., T. Mineo, A. Carrasco, G. Godoy, A. Pinto and R. Machado. 2007. Neospora caninum infection in birds: experimental infections in chicken and embryonated eggs. Parasitology, 134(14): 1931-1939.
12. Gilani, A. and Ghayur, M. 2005. Ginger: from myths to reality. Ethnotherapies in the cycle of life. BOD-Books on Demand/Ethnomed Institut für Ethnomedizin eV, Munich: 307-315.
13. Haraguchi, H., Tanimoto, K., Tamura, Y., Mizutani, K., and Kinoshita, T. 1998. Mode of antibacterial action of retrochalcones from Glycyrrhiza inflata. Phytochemistry, 48: 125-129.
14. Häsler, B., Regula, G., Stärk, KD., Sager, H., Gottstein, B., Reist, M. 2006. Financial analysis of various strategies for the control of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle in Switzerland. Prevew Veterinary & Medicine, 77:230-53.
15. Hosseini, A., Jaffary, F.G., Asghari, R., Hejazi, S. H., and Bidabadi, L. S. 2012. In Vitro Effects of Turmeric and Licorice Total Extracts on L. Major Promastigotes. Journal of Isfahan Medical School, 29:169.
16. Jatav, V. S., S. K. Singh, P. Khatri and A. Sharma. 2011. Recent pharmacological trends of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Unani Res 1: 1-11
17. Khaksarian M, Javan M, Sonboli A, Motamedi F. Inhibition of acute and chronic pain in male rats by aqueous extract of Hypericum perforatum L. yafte. 2004; 5 (3) :11-18
18. Khordadmehr, M., M. Namavari, A. Khodakaram-Tafti, M. Mansourian, A. Rahimian and Y. Daneshbod. 2013. Comparison of use of Vero cell line and suspension culture of murine macrophage to attenuation of virulence of Neospora caninum. Research in veterinary science, 95(2): 515-521.
19. Kobayashi, M., Fujita, K., Katakura, T., Utsunomiya, T., Pollard, R. B., and Suzuki, F. 2001. Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on experimental pulmonary metastasis in mice inoculated with B16 melanoma. Anticancer research, 22: 4053-4058.
20. Lantz, R. C., Chen, G., Sarihan, M., Solyom, A., Jolad, S. and Timmermann, B. 2007. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine, 14: 123-128.
21. Li, Y., Tran, V. H.,.Duke, C. C and Roufogalis, B. D. 2012. Preventive and protective properties of Zingiber officinale (ginger) in diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, and associated lipid and other metabolic disorders: a brief review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012:516870
22. Mansourian, M., A. Khodakaram-Tafti and M. Namavari. 2009. "Histopathological and clinical investigations in Neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs. Veterinary parasitology, 166(3): 185-1
23. Mello, M. N. and M. P. Deane. 1976. "Patterns of development of Trypanosoma cruzi in the embryonated chicken egg. Annals of Tropical Medicine & Parasitology, 70(4): 381-388.
24. Mirmala, P. and Selvaraj, T. 2011. Anti-inflammatory & antibacterial activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Journal of Agriculture Technology, 7: 815-823.
25. Müller, J., Hemphill, A. 2011. Drug target identification in intracellular and extracellular protozoan parasites. Current Topics in Medicine Chemistry, 11:2029–2038.
26. Namavari, M., M. Mansourian, A. K. Tafti, M. H. Hosseini, A. Rahimiyan, M. Khordadmehr and M. Lotfi. 2012. Application of chicken embryonated eggs as a new model for evaluating the virulence of Neospora caninum tachyzoites. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 21(6): 1665-1668.
27. Numazaki, K., N. Nagata, T. Sato and S. Chiba. 1994. "Effect of glycyrrhizin, cyclosporin A, and tumor necrosis factor alpha on infection of U-937 and MRC-5 cells by human cytomegalovirus. Journal of leukocyte biology, 55(1): 24-28.
28. Nweze, E., Okafor, J. and Njoku, O. 2004. Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Trema guineensis (Schumm and Thorn) and Morinda lucida benth used in Nigerian. Bio-research, 2: 39-46.
29. Paré, J., Thurmond, M.C., Hietala, S.K. 1996. Congenital Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle and associated calfhood mortality. Canadaian Journal of Veterinary Research, 60:133–139.
30. Rathi, S., Suthar, M., Patel, P., Bhaskar, V., and Rajgor, N. 2009. In-vitro cytotoxic screening of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.(Fabaceae): A natural anticancer drug. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 1: 239-243.
31. Reichel, M.P., Alejandra Ayanegui-Alcérreca, M., Gondim, L.F., Ellis, J.T. 2012. What is the global economic impact of Neospora caninum in cattle – the billiondollar question. International Journal of Parasitology, 43:133–142.
32. Reichel, MP, Ellis, JT. 2006. If control of Neospora caninum infection is technically feasible does it make economic sense? Veterinary Parasitology. 142:23-34.
33. Schares,G. , Pantchev, N., Barutzki, D., Heydorn, A.O., Bauer, C., Conraths, F.J. 2005. Oocysts of Neospora caninum, Hammondia heydorni, Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia hammondi in faeces collected from dogs in Germany. International Journal for Parasitology, 35: 1525–1537.
34. Schoen, A. M. and S. G. Wynn. 1998. Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Mosby.
35. Setasimy, A., and Namavari, M., 2016, Use of chicken embryonated eggs for evaluating the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 40(4):1223-1225.
36. Sykes, J. E. (2013). Canine and Feline Infectious Diseases-E-BOOK. Elsevier Health Sciences.