عنوان مقاله [English]
Aflatoxins are toxic mold metabolites produced by different Aspergillus species. These toxins have an important role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases such as cancer, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to determine the level of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and the presence of the fungus in animal feed collected in Khoy city. In a cross-sectional study, random samples were selected from the collected raw milk in different parts of Khoy city in a time interval between the second half of the summer and the first half of the winter. After centrifugation of samples, upper part of centrifuged milk containing milk fat was removed and the lower portion of fat-free milk was used to analyze the aflatoxin level by ELISA kit manufactured by R-biopharm Company. Results showed that 51.06% of samples collected in the second half of summer (July and August) and 52.32% of samples collected in the first half of winter (October, November and December) in 1394, were contaminated with aflatoxins with a range of 0-8 μg/L and an average of 0.5-8 μg/L, respectively. The average of the aflatoxin contamination was over Europe standard (0.05μg/L) in 60.47% of samples. R. stolonifer, A. flavus and A. clavatus species were found in all studied cattle feeds. The presence of aflatoxin in dairy products is a very serious and important problem to public health, especially to infants and children who are considered as the largest consumers of these products. To reduce the amount of aflatoxin in milk, dairy animal feeds must be controlled in terms of contamination with M1 aflatoxin.
1. Frisvad J.C., P. Skouboe and R.A. Samson. 2005. Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin and 3-O- methylsterigmatocystin, Aspergillus rambellii sp. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol. 28(5): 442-53.
2. Creppy E.E. 2002. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett. 127(1-3): 19-28.
3. Faletto M.B. and H.L. Gurtoo. 1989. The effect of inducers of mixed-function oxidases on hepatic microsome-mediated aflatoxin B1 transformation in C3H/10T1/2 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 98(2): 252-62.
4. European Commission. Commission Regulation 2001/466/EC of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs (text with EEA relevance). Off J Eur Commun. L77: 1-13.
5. Berg T. 2003. How to establish international limits for mycotoxins in food and feed? Food Control. 14: 219-24.
6. Ismair Y. S. Ruston. 1996. Aflatoxin in food and feed: Occurrence, Legislation and inactivation by physical methods. Food chemistry. 59 (1): 57-67.
7. Torkar K.G. and A. Vengust. 2008. The presence of yeasts, moulds and aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and cheese in Slovenia. Food Control. 19(6): 570-7.
8. Berghofer L.K., A.D. Hocking and D. Miskelly. 2003. Microbiology of wheat and flourmilling in Australia. Int J Food Microbiol. 85 (1-2): 137-149.
9. Lopez C.E., L.L. Ramos, S.S. Romadan and L.C. Bulacio. 2003. Presence of aflatoxin M1 in milk for human consumption in Argentina. Food Control. 14(1): 31-34.
10. Eaton D.L. and E.P. Gallagher. 1994. Mechanisms of aflatoxin carcinogenesis, Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology. 34: 135-72.
11. Giti K., V. Parvaneh and H. Kordi. 1982. Study of milk contamination to aflatoxin in Region Tehran. Iranian J of Hygiene. 1-3.
12. Kamkar A. 2002. Study on the contamination of "UHT" milks whit aflatoxin M1 in city of Tehran. Veterinary J of Tehran Univ. 57 (4): 5-8 (In Persian).
13. Pornourmohamadi Sh., M. Ansari and L. Nazakati Olfati. 2008. Determination of aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized milk consumed in Kerman Province. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 16 (3): 271-80 (In Persian).
14. Alborzi S., B. Pourabbas, M. Rashidi and B. Astaneh. 2006. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in pasteurized milk in Shiraz (south of Iran). Food Control. 17(7): 582-584.
15. Kamkar A. 2005. A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk produced in Sarab city of Iran. Food Control. 16(7): 593-9.
16. Sales A.C. and T. Yoshizawa. 2005. Updated profile of aflatoxin and aspergillus section Flavi contamination in rice and its byproducts from the Philippines. J of Toxicol. 22: 429-439.
17. Berghofer L.K., A.D. Hocking and D. Miskelly. 2003. Microbiology of wheat and flourmilling in Australia. Int J Food Microbiol. 85 (1-2): 137-149.
18. Deshpande S.S. 2002. Fungal Toxins in S.S. Deshpande, Handbook of food toxicology, 387-456.
19. Ersali, A. and F. Bahaaddin Beigy. 2010. The transfer of aflatoxin from feed to milk and pasteurized milk in Shiraz and suburbs, Journal of University of Medical Sciences and Health Sadoghi Yazd, (3): 175-183. (In Persian).
20. Karim, G., S. Bokaeeand and A.Khorasani. 2000. The level of aflatoxin contamination of milk delivered to factories pasteurized milk Tehran M1 using ELISA, Research and Construction, 40: 49-55. (In Persian).
21. Pornormohamadi, Sh., M. Ansari, L. Nezakati Olfati and M. Kazemipour. 2010. Determination of Aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized milk consumption in the province of Kerman, Kerman Medical Journal, XVI(3): 271-280. (In Persian).
22. Taj Karimi, M., S.S. Ghaemmaghami and A. Matlabi. 2008. Quarterly review of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of 15 Milk Industry Factory Iran (Pegah). Research and development in cattle breeding and aquaculture, 75: 2-9. (In Persian).
23. Gholipour, M., L. Karimzadeh, F. Ali Nia and Z. Babaei. 2012. The measurement of aflatoxin M1 in milk factory in Mazandaran province in the first half of 1390, Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 22(93): 39-46. (In Persian).
24. Hazhir, M.S., N. Sanobar Tahaei, K. Rashidi, R. Rezaei and H. Sheikhi. 2009. The amount of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk delivered to milk pasteurization factory in Sanandaj, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences Journal, XIII: 44-50. (In Persian).