ارزیابی ارتباط بین اسیدهای چرب و تجمع فلزات سنگین (کادمیوم، سرب، جیوه و مس) در بافت عضله، کبد و پوست ماهی اوزون برون (Acipenser stellatus) در سواحل جنوب غربی و شرقی دریای مازندران

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه شیلات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، واحد قائم‌‌شهر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، قائم شهر، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مهندسی شیمی، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

3 دانش‌‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ، آمل، ایران

چکیده

در این مطالعه حضور حاد فلزات سنگین کادمیوم، سرب، جیوه و مس در بافت‌‌های عضله، کبد و پوست ماهیان اوزون‌‌برون در سواحل جنوب شرقی و غربی دریای مازندران (استان‌‌های مازندران وگلستان) بررسی ‌‌شد. در این پژوهش به بررسی ارتباط تجمع فلزات سنگین و چربی و اسیدهای چرب بافت‌‌های این گونه‌‌ی‌ بسیار با ارزش و پرطرفدار از ماهیان خاویاری پرداخته‌‌شده است. نتایج نشان داد که در عضله‌‌ی ماهی، تمام این فلزات سنگین در محدوده‌‌ی مجاز مصرف قرار دارند و بین فیله‌‌ی دو ناحیه اختلافی وجود ندارد (05/0 > p)؛ لیکن غلظت عناصر سنگین در کبد بیشتر از پوست و عضله می‌‌باشد (05/0 > p). در هردو ساحل جنوب شرقی و غربی در بافت کبد ماهی اوزون‌‌برون مقادیر کادمیوم (22/0 و 26/0 میکروگرم بر گرم) بالاتر از محدوده‌‌ی مجاز ارزیابی شدند. مقادیر جیوه در پوست هردو ساحل جنوب شرقی و غربی بالاتر از سایر اندام‌‌ها بود، به‌‌طوری‌‌که در پوست ماهی اوزون‌‌برون به ترتیب 11/0 تا 42/0 میکروگرم بر گرم بود. همچنین تجمع فلزات سنگین در نمونه‌‌های صیدشده از سواحل جنوب غربی (مازندران) بیشتر از سواحل جنوب شرقی (گلستان) بوده‌‌است. الگوی تجمع فلزات سنگین در عضله‌‌ی ماهی با اندام‌‌های کبد و پوست متفاوت بود. از سوی دیگر، مجموع اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع (UFA) در بافت اوزون‌‌برون در سواحل جنوب‌‌ غرب و شرق به ترتیب 12/89 و 84/80 گرم بر 100 گرم بود(05/0 > p). مجموع اسیدهای چرب سری امگا-3 در سواحل مذکور به ترتیب 45/18 و 42/13 گرم بر 100 گرم بود (05/0 > p). همچنین بین میزان عناصر سنگین و میزان اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع در اندام‌‌های مختلف ماهیان خاویاری همبستگی وجود داشت. این ارتباط در بافت‌‌های کبد (۸۲۴/۰ = R2)، پوست (۸۱۸/۰ = R2) و عضله (0.627 = R2) ماهیان خاویاری همبستگی مثبتی داشت؛ برعکس با افزایش اسیدهای چرب امگا-3 در فیله، تجمع فلزات سنگین کاهش یافت (0.021 = R2). نتایج به‌‌دست آمده همچنین بیان‌‌گر سالم بودن نسبی ماهیان اوزون برون و عدم آلودگی شدید این ماهیان به عناصر سنگین می‌‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Relationship between Fatty acids and Heavy Metals Accumulation (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu) in Fillet, Liver and Skin Tissues of Stellet Sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in Southwest and Southeast of Caspian Sea

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Hedayatifard 1
  • M. Khavarpour 2
  • N. Oroumi 3
1 Fisheries Department, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, PO Box: 163, Qaemshahr, Iran
2 Department of Chemistry Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology,
3 Department of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Study of acute accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg and Cu) in tissues of fillet, liver and skin of stellate sturgeons was done in Southwest (SW) and Southeast (SE) coasts (Mazandaran and Golestan provinces) of Caspian Sea. In this study the relationship between tissues heavy metals accumulation and fatty acids were investigated, in such valuable and popular sturgeon species. The results showed that all measured heavy metals were in standard range and there was no difference between the two area (p<0.05), but heavy metals concentration in fish liver was more than that in fillet and skin (p<0.05). The Cd in the fish liver was higher than the acceptable range in both SE and SW coasts (0.22 and 0.26 µg/g, respectively) (p<0.05). Hg amounts were higher in the stellate surgeon skin than in other organs in both SE and SW coasts, (0.11 and 0.42 µg/g, respectively). Also, in SW coast samples, the heavy metals accumulation was higher than in SE. The pattern of heavy metals accumulation in the fish fillet was different from liver and skin. On the other hand, total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) were 89.12 and 80.84 g/100g in samples of SW and SE coasts, respectively (p<0.05). Total omega-3 was 18.45 and 13.42 g/100g, respectively (p<0.05) in the same samples. In addition, there was a specified relationship in different organs between fish fatty acids and amounts of heavy metals. This relationship was a positive correlation in tissues of liver (R2 = 0.824), skin (R2 = 0.818) and fillet (R2 = 0.627) of the sturgeon fish. On the contrary, the heavy metals decreased according to increase in omega-3 fatty acids in sturgeon fillet (R2 = 0.021) . The results also indicated that stellate sturgeon had relative safety and non-hyper contamination by heavy metals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Caspian Sea
  • fatty acids
  • heavy metals
  • Stellate sturgeon

1. Coad, B., 2016. Review of the Pikes of Iran (Family Esocidae). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 3(3):161-180.
2. Keyvanfar, A., Rochu, D., Marneux, M., Herance, N., and J.M. Fine, 1987. Différenciation par focalisation isoélectrique des protéines de caviar de quatre espèces et d’une sous-espèce d’esturgeon anadrome de la mer Caspienne. C.R., Academy Sciences of Paris 304 (III), 9: 191–193.
3. Hedayatifard, M., and M. Yousefian, 2007. Investigation on the Shelf Life and Changes of Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in Frozen Storage, Fishery Technology 44(2): 193-198.
4. Canli, M. and G. Atli, 2003. The relationships between heavy metal (cd,cr,cu,fe,pb,zn) levels and size of six Mediterranean fish species. Environmental Pollution 121: 129-136.
5. Ben Salem, Z., Capelli, N., Laffray, X., Elise, G., Ayadi, H., and L. Aleya, 2014. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in water, sediment and roach tissues in a landfill draining system pond (Etueffont, France), Ecological Engineering 69: 25–37.
6. Endo T, araguchi K, Cipriano F, Simmonds M P, Hotla Y, and M. Sakata, 2004. Contamination by mercury and cadmium in the cetacean products from Japanese market. Journal of Chemosphere 54:1653-62.
7. Sfakianakis, D.G., Renieri, E., Kentouri, M., and A.M. Tsatsakis, 2015. Effect of heavy metals on fish larvae deformities: A review, Environmental Research 137: 246–255.
8. Golovin, A.H., Krichenko, C.G., Galutva, O.A., Konisheva, E.H., and L.D. Kyrlanova, 1990. Saderkhaniye nekotorikh khimicheshkikh elementob i khlororganicheskikh pectisidov ve mishikh j vnootrenikh organakh ruskogo ocetra, V. kn: Physiologo-biokhimicheskni status Volgo-Caspiskikh osetrovikh v norme i pri rasloyeni mishechnoi takani (Kumulyativinii palitoksikos), Ribinisk 1190: 52-54.
9. MacDonald, D.D., Ikonomou, M.G., Rantalaine, A.L., Rogers, I.H., Sutherland, D., and J.V. Oostdam, 1997. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16, 479–490.
10. Agusa T, Kunito T, Tanabe S, Pourkazemi M, and D.G. Aubrey, 2004. Concentrations of trace elements in muscle of sturgeons in the Caspian Sea. Journal of Marine Pollution Bulletin 49: 789-800.
11. Jarić, I., Višnjić-Jeftić, Ž., Cvijanović, G., Gačić, Z., Jovanović, L., Skorić, S., and M. Lenhardt, 2011. Determination of differential heavy metal and trace element accumulation in liver, ills, intestine and muscle of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) from the Danube River in Serbia by ICP-OES, Microchemical Journal (98) 1: 77–81.
12. Onara, D.F., Radu, S., Holostenco, D., and T. Dana, 2013. Heavy metal bio-accumulation in tissues of sturgeon species of the Lower Danube River, Romania, Scientific Annals of the Danube Delta Institute 19: 87-94.
13. Poleksic, V., Lenhardt, M., Jarić, I., Djordjevic, D., Gacic, Z., Cvijanovic, G., and B. Raskovic, 2010. Liver, gills, and skin histopathology and heavy metal content of the Danube sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758), Environmental Toxicology Chemistry 29(3): 515-21.
14. Li, Zh., Li, P., Dzyuba, B., and T. Randak, 2010. Influence of environmental related concentrations of heavy metals on motility parameters and antioxidant responses in sturgeon sperm, Chemico-Biological Interactions 188(3): 473–477.
15. Kolangi Miandare, H., Niknejad, M., Shabani, A., and R. Safari, 2016. Exposure of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) to cadmium results in biochemical, histological and transcriptional alterations, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 181–182: 1–8.
16. Sadeghirad, M., Amini Ranjbar, Gh., Arshad, A., and H. Joshideh, 2005. Assessing Heavy metal content of muscle tissue and caviar of Acipenser persicus and Acipencser stellatus in Southers Caspian Sea, Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal 14(3): 79-100. [In Persian]
17. Gapeova, A.L., M.A. Tselmovich and V. Shirakov, 1990. Heavy metals in sturgeons of Volga River downstream, Research Report, GosNIORKh. [In Russian]
18. Amini Ranjbar, Gh., Bahmani, M., Farshchi, P., and F. Shariat, 2003. Coefficient correlation of Heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb) in Persian Sturgeon's liver ans kidney (Acipenser persicus) and in the sediments of the Southern coast of the Caspian Sea, Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 17: 48-61. [In Persian]
19. Parvaneh, V., 1996. Surveying of mercury amounts in Caspian Sea Fish, Journal of Veterinary, Tehran University 20: 28-35. [In Persian]
20. Abtahi, B., Shojaii M.G., Esmaili-Sari A., Rahnema M., Sharifpour, I., Bahmni, M., Kazemi, R., Hallajian, A., 2007. Concentration of some heavy metals in tissues of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in the South Caspian Sea. Journal of Environ, 3: 77-8.
21. Heidary, S., Imanpour Namin J., and Monsefrad, F., 2012. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals Cu, Zn, and Hg in muscles and liver of the stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) in the Caspian Sea and their correlation with growth parameters, Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences (Eng), 11(2) 325-337.
22. Pourang, N., Tanabe, S., Rezvani, S. and J.H. Dennis, 2005. Trace elements accumulation in edible tissues of five sturgeon species from the Caspian Sea. Environmental Monitoring and assessment 100(1-3): 89-108.
23. Isuyev, A.P and B.S. Musayev, 1989. Comparison of the Fatty Acid Composition of Lipids during Various Stages of Ontogeny in carp, Bighead, Salmon Trout and Russian Sturgeon, Journal of Ichthyology 29 (6): 128-131.
24. Stansby, M.E., 1990. Fatty acid composition of fish, in: Fish Oils In Nutrition, (ed. M.E. Stansby) VAN Nostrand Reinhold. N.Y. pp 6-39.
25. Hedayatifard, M. and S. Moeini, 2004. Quantitative and qualitative identification of the fatty acids in Persian sturgeon tissue (Acipenser persicus) and effect of long term freezing on them, Journal of Food Research (Former Agricultural Science) 14(3):123-132. [In Persian]
26. MOOPAM, 1999. Manual of Oceanographic Observations and Pollutant Analysis Methods, 3rd ed, Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment, Kuwait.
27. WHO, 2007. Health risks of heavy metals from long-range transboundary air pollution, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen O, Denmark, 130p.
28. Nasrollahzadeh Saravi, H, Najafpour, S, Rezaei, M. and A. Solaimaniroudi, 2014. Temporal and spatial ofheavy metals concentrations (Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg) in Iraniancoastalwaters of the Southern Caspian Sea, Journal of Marine Biology 6 (1) :1-12. [In Persian]
29. Repo, E., Warchoł, J.K., Bhatnagar, A., Mudhoo, A., and M. Sillanpää, 2013. Aminopolycarboxylic acid functionalized adsorbents for heavy metals removal from water, Water Research (47) 14: 4812–4832.
30. Chen, I.-C., Chapman, F.A., Wei, C.-I., Portier, K.M., and S.F.J. O’Keefe, 1995. Differentiation of cultured and wild sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) based on fatty acid composition, Food Science 60:631–635.
31. Luo, L., Ai, L., Li, T., Xuem M., Wang, J., Li, W., Wu, X., and X. Liang, 2015. The impact of dietary DHA/EPA ratio on spawning performance, egg and offspring quality in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri), Aquaculture 437: 140–145.
32. Nieminen, P., Westenius, E., Halonen, T. and A. Mustonen, 2014. Fatty acid composition in tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii), Food Chemistry 159: 80–84.