مروری بر اثرات زیستی آلاینده‌های صوتی ناشی از فعالیت‌های انسانی بر ماهی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسنده

گروه شیلات، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گیلان، صومعه سرا، گیلان، ایران

چکیده

آلاینده‌های صوتی ناشی از فعالیت‌های انسانی در محیط های زیست خشکی و آبی بطور گسترده‌ای روز به روز در حال افزایش است. فعالیت‌های انسانی شامل شهرسازی، صنعتی شدن، توسعه صنعت حمل و نقل دریایی منابع مختلفی از آلاینده‌های صوتی با دامنه فرکانس‌های گسترده و الگوهای زمانی متفاوت را به محیط‌های آبی اضافه نموده‌اند. موجودات آبزی شامل پستانداران دریایی، ماهی‌ها و بی‌مهره‌گان با توجه به میزان تکامل و توانایی شان در دریافت و استخراج سیگنال‌ها و علایم صوتی مرتبط از محیط با اصوات زمینه بصورت بالقوه ممکن است بطور متفاوتی تحت تاثیر آلاینده‌های صوتی ناشی از فعالیت‌های انسانی قرار گیرند. در این مقاله ابتدا به بررسی عمده‌ترین منابع صوتی متداول در محیط‌های زیست آبی شامل مناطق دریایی و آب شیرین پرداخته می‌شود. در ادامه اثرات بالقوه صوت بر زیست‌شناسی ماهی شامل آسیب‌های فیزیکی، فیزیولوژیکی، اثرات همپوشانی و بویژه تغییرات رفتاری دنبال می‌گردد. همچنین نتایج حاصل از بررسی‌های اخیر نویسنده و همکاران در خصوص تغییرات رفتاری ناشی از صوت بر ماهی با نتایج سایر محققین مقایسه می‌گردد. در پایان پیشنهاد می‌گردد که مطالعات رفتارشناسی می‌تواند به عنوان یک روش در جهت پایش، حفاظت و درک بهتر اثرات احتمالی آلاینده های زیستی بویژه آلاینده های صوتی بر ماهی کاربرد داشته باشد. مطالعات گسترده‌تری لازم است تا به اثرات آلاینده‌های صوتی بر روی آبزیان در سطوح انفرادی و گروهی و بازخوردهای آن بر اجتماعات زیستی در سطح اکوسیستم های آبی پی برده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biological effects of anthropogenic noise on fish: a review

نویسنده [English]

  • Saeed Shafiei Sabet
Fisheries Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Guilan, Sowmeh Sara, Guilan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Anthropogenic noise produced by a variety of human activities is increasing in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats worldwide. Urbanization, industrialization and maritime transportation have introduced various man-made sounds into the aquatic environment with a broad range of temporal and spectral patterns. Aquatic animals including marine mammals, fishes and invertebrates with different hearing ability can perceive sounds and extract relevant signals and cues from ambient noise in the environment and therefore potentially may be affected by anthropogenic noise differently. In this review, the main sound sources have been clearly demonstrated. Then, in general more prevalent sound detection and sound production mechanisms and organs have been discussed among fish species. Moreover, I address anthropogenic noise effects on fishes including physical, physiological, masking and especially behavioral changes. Moreover, I compared our latest results and behavioural studies on the effect of noise on fish behaviour with recent studies. Finally, I suggest insights of sound-related behavioural changes can be used as a useful method to monitor, assess and mitigate the potential effects of noise on fish species. I believe the studies in the current review contribute eventually to more general awareness of potential issues with noise pollution in aquatic habitat and shed light on the potential effect of anthropogenic noise on fish behaviour. I am sure that, by then, more fundamental insights and future studies will come in handy for potential monitoring, protection or mitigation efforts at the community levels in the aquatic environments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biological pollutants
  • sound
  • aquatic habitats
  • behavioural biology
  • Fish
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