عنوان مقاله [English]
Electric fishing is one of the research methods used for sampling of aquatic species in freshwater and riverine habitats. Also in the marine environment using electric fields to reduce by-catch species and increase targeted fishing activities specially is a common useful method on particular for benthoses species. Electric current density and environmental factors such as water salinity can have different effects on fish species. Therefore, the study of behavioral changes and possible physical effects of electrical currents on fish species are important in terms of biological aspects and changes in population distribution for target prey species. The present study aimed to investigate changes in behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in experimental pond condition using a variable voltage electric field in different water salinity during entanglement of fishing gear. Common carp behavioral reactions in response to the strength and conductivity of the electric field in the water with different salinity and temperature such as distance from the source of electric current, fear reactions, convulsions and ultimately death of the fish when they were in the test environment were measured. In this study electric field treatments include a range of voltages 240, 225, 210, 195, 180, 165, 150,135, 120, 105 and 90 V in four water salinity levels (0, 2, 4 and 8 g/l) , respectively. The results showed that an increasing of water salinity (0-8) g /l does not have a significant effect on the distance of carp from the electric source. While, the increase in voltage has significant impact on the distance of carp from the electric source. Also in all water salinity treatments the maximum convulsion has been recorded in voltages higher than 150 volts. Mortality was observed at higher voltages above 225 v. Further complementary behavioural studies are needed to investigate potential effects of anthropogenic environmental pollutions including electric fields, produced by commercial fish pond mechanization and fisheries gear developments on fish species behavioural changes in both growing ponds and commercial fisheries activities. Moreover, we suggest that to understand the effects of environmental pollutions at the community levels require more laboratory and field experiments on many fish species at individual levels.
1- Aminian Fatideh, B., Abdi, H., Sarpanah Surkuh, A. N., and Shafiei Sabet, S. (2012). The principle of fish behaviour. Agriculture and Natural Resources Engineering Organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Abdi publication. 296 pages. (In Persian).
2- Aminian Fatideh, B., Shafiei Sabet, S. (2011). Study on biological indices of bony fishes by two types of tensive net (Beach Seine) from southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Journal of Biology Science, 4, 4 (15) : 15- 27. (In Persian).
3- Aminian fatideh. B., Hossein Zadeh Sahafi, H., Shabani, A. and Yaghmaie. F. (2008). Reproduction characteristics of Rutilus frisii kutum in the southern coast of Caspian sea. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 79: 144-152. (In Persian).
4- Bani, A., Haghi Vayghan, A. and NaserAlavi, M., (2015). The effects of salinity on reproductive performance and plasma levels of sex steroids in Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum. Aquaculture Research. 1-8.
5- Barreto, R. E., & Volpato, G. L. (2006). Stress responses of the fish Nile tilapia subjected to electroshock and social stressors. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 39, (12) : 1605-1612.
6- Barton, B.A. and Grosh, R.S. (1996). Effect of AC electroshock on blood features in juvenile rainbow trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 49: 1330–1333
7- Barton, B.A., and Dwyer, W.P. (1997). Physiological stress effects of continuous and Pulsed- DC electroshock on juvenile bull trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 51: 998-1008.
8- Bochert, R., & Zettler, M. L. (2004). Long‐term exposure of several marine benthic animals to static magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics, 25 (7) : 498-502.
9- Collins, G.B., Volz, C.D. and Trefethen, P. S. (1954). Mortality of salmon fingerlings exposed to pulsating direct current. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Bulletin, 56: 61–84.
10- Cowx, I. G. and Lamarque, P. (1990). Fishing with Electricity: Applications in Fresh water Management. Oxford: fishing New Books, Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd. 228p.
11- Dwyer, W.P., and White, R.G. (1995). Influence of electroshock on short-term growth of adult rainbow trout and juvenile Arctic grayling and cutthroat trout. North American Journal of fisheries Management, 15: 148-151.
12- Ebrahimzadeh, I. (2010). Land use and environmental planning in southeast Iran. First Edition. Tehran. Etelaat Press. 408 pages. (In Perian).
13- FAO (2009). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome, Italy.
14- Gatz, Jr., A.J. and Adams, S.M. (1987). Effects of repeated electro shocking on growth of Bluegill and green sunfish hybrids. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 448-450. 15- Ghorbani, R., Yelghi, S., Aghili, S. M. (2010). Survey and assessment of predation of fish beach seine cooperative companies in Golestan province in 2005-2006. Journal of Fisheries. 4, 3 (15) : 39-46. (In Persian).
16- Goffaux, D., Grenouillet, G., & Kestemont, P. (2005). Electrofishing versus gillnet sampling for the assessment of fish assemblages in large rivers. Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 162(1) , 73-90.
17- Growns, I. O., Pollard, D. A. and Harris, J, H, (1996). A comparison of electric fishing and gillnetting to examine the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on riverine fish communities. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 3, 1, 13-24.
18- Hartley, W. G. (1980). The use of electrical fishing for estimating stocks of freshwater fish. In: Guidelines for sampling fish in inland waters. EIFAC tech pap No. 33, FAO Rome Ed T. Backiel and R. Welcomme pp 91-95.
19- Hudy, M. (1985). Rainbow trout and brook trout mortality from high voltage AC electrofishing in a controlled environment. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, 5: 475–479.
20- Khanypour, A. A., Aminian Fatideh, B. (2004). Scientific and Practical Guide fishermen. Tehran. Iranian Fisheries Research Institute Scientific Information Management. 238 pages. (In Persian).
21- Kiessling, A., Espe, M., Ruohonen, K., Morkore, T. (2004). Texture, gaping and colour of fresh and frozen Atlantic salmon flesh as affected by pre-slaughter iso-eugenol or CO2 anaesthesia. Aquaculture. 236: 645–657.
22- Kozic, V., Krope, J., Lipus, L. and Ticar, I. (2006). Magnetic field analysis on electromagnetic water treatment device. Hungarian journal of veszprrem.34.51-54pp. Massimo, E. And Maffi.2014. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution. Plant science.5:15-1pp
23- Kristoffersen, T., Tobiassen, M., Esaiassen, GB. Olsson, L. A. Godvik, M. Seppola, A. and Olsen, R.L. (2006). Effects of pre-rigor filleting on quality aspects of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) , Aquaculture Research. 37 pp.1556–1564.
24- Lines, J.A., and Kestin, S.C., (2005). Electric stunning of trout: power reduction using a two stage stun. Aquaculture. Eng. 32: 483-491.
25- Loghmannia, J., Heidari, B., Rozati, S. A., & Kazemi, S. (2015). The physiological responses of the Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry to the static magnetic fields with different intensities during acute and subacute exposures. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 111, 215-219.
26- Mesa, M.G. and Schreck, C.B. (1989). Electrofishing mark-recapture and depletion methodologies evoke behavioral and physiological changes in cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 118:644-658.
27- Mitton, C.J.A. and McDonald, D.G. (1994). Effects of electroshock, air exposure, and forced exercise on swim performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 51: 1799–1803.
28- Nordwall, F. (1999). Movements of brown trout in a small stream: effects of electrofishing and consequences for population estimates. North American Journal of Fisheries 19, no. 2, 462-469.
29- Paighambari, S. Y., Gharache , M. H., Jafari, V. (2013). Effects of electrofishing stress on hematological parameters of wild carp (Cyprinus carpio). Journal of exploitation and aquaculture. 1: 85-96. (In Persian).
30- Pingguo, H. (2010). Behavior of marine fishes: capture processes and conservation challenges. Wiley-Blackwell. 392 pp.
31- Polet, H., Delanghe, F., & Verschoore, R. (2005). On electrical fishing for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) : I. Laboratory experiments. Fisheries Research, 72(1) , 1-12.
32- Polet, H., Delanghe, F., & Verschoore, R. (2005). On electrical fishing for brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) : II. Sea trials. Fisheries research, 72(1) , 13-27.
33- Poli, B.M., Parisi, G., Scappini, F., and Zampacavallo, G. (2005). Fish welfare and quality as affected by pre-slaughter and slaughter management. Aquaculture International. 13, (1-2) : 29–49.
34- Pratt, V. S. (1955). Fish mortality caused by electrical shockers. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 84: 93–96.
35- Pugh, L. L. and Schramm, H. L. Jr. (1998). Comparison of Electrofishing and Hoop netting in Lotic Habitats of the Lower Mississippi River. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 18, no. 3, 649-656.
36- Pusey, B. J., Kennard, M. J., Arthur, J. M. and Arthington, A. H. (1998). Quantitative sampling of stream fish assemblages: Single- vs multiple-pass electrofishing. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: no. 4,365-374.
37- Roth, B., Imsland, A., Gunnarsson, S., Foss, A. and Schelvis, R. (2007). Slaughter quality and rigor contraction in farmed turbot (Scapthalmus maximus). A caparison between different stunning methods. Aquaculture. 272: 754-761.
38- Roth, B., Torrissen, O.J. and Slinde, E. (2005). The effect of slaughtering procedures on blood spotting in ainbow trout
(Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. 250: 796-803.
39- Saboori, M., Seydaei, S. E., Taghadosi, A. (2013). Strategies for the development of fishing activities in coastal areas of Oman; about: city of Jask. Iranian Journal of Geography and Development. 11(32) : 29-46. (In Persian).
40- Sarpanah, A. N., Aminian Fatideh, B. and Shafiei Sabet, S. (2009). Cyprinid fishes (Biology, Ecology, Reproduction and breeding). Tehran. Agriculture and Natural Resources Engineering Organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran Press.275 pages. (In Persian).
41- Shabanpour, B., Rahmanifarah, K., Shabani, A. (2012). Evaluation of post mortem flesh quality attributes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) slaughtered by exsanguination and hypothermia methods. Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology. 9, (36): 21-31. (In Persian).
42- Shafiei Sabet, S., Imanpour, M. R., Aminian Fatideh, B. AND Gorgin, S. (2009). The Study on some blood ionic and metabolic parameters in maturated and immature female’s kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum) migrated to Sefid-rud estuary. Veterinary Journal (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi) , No 84: 71-79. (In Persian).
43- Shafiei Sabet, S., Neo, Y. Y., & Slabbekoorn, H. (2015). The effect of temporal variation in sound exposure on swimming and foraging behaviour of captive zebrafish. Animal Behaviour, 107, 49-60.
44- Shafiei Sabet, S., Neo, Y. Y., & Slabbekoorn, H. (2016). Impact of Anthropogenic Noise on Aquatic Animals: From Single Species to Community-Level Effects. In The Effects of Noise on Aquatic Life II (pp. 957-961). Springer New York.
45- Sharber, N. G., and Carothers, S. W. (1988). Influence of electrofishing pulse shape on spinal injuries in adult rainbow trout. North American Journal of Fisheries Management: 8: (1) : 117-122.
46- Snyder, D, E, (1995). Impacts of electrofishing on fish. Fisheries, 20, 1:26-27.
47- Snyder, D. E. (1992). Impacts of electrofishing on fish. Report of Colorado State University Larval Fish Laboratory to US Dept of Interior Bureau of Reclamation, Salt lake City, Utah, and Glen Canyon Environmental Studies Aquatic Coordination Team, Flagstaff, Arizona.
48- Soetaert, M., Decostere, A., Polet, H., Verschueren, B., & Chiers, K. (2015). Electrotrawling: a promising alternative fishing technique warranting further exploration. Fish and Fisheries, 16(1), 104-124.
49- Vercauteren, G., Chiers, K., Verschueren, B., Decostere, A., & Polet, H. (2010). Effects of low-frequency pulsed direct current on captive-housed sea fish. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 143(4), 354.
50- Wiley, M. L. and Tsai, C.F. (1983). The relative efficiencies of electrofishing vs. seines in Piedmont streams of Maryland. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 3, no. 3, 243-253.