بررسی تغییرات هیستوپاتولوژیک آبشش ماهی گورخری (Aphanius sophiae) در مسمومیت با آرسنیک و کادمیوم در شرایط آب شور و آب شیرین

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل

نویسندگان

1 گروه محیط زیست، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، دانشگاه تهران

2 گروه شیلات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرج، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

آلاینده های اکوسیستم‌های آبی از جمله فلزات سنگین همواره سبب تغییرات آسیب شناختی در ماهیان می شوند. از آنجایی که اثرات آلاینده ها تحت تاثیر ویژگی های شیمیایی آب می باشد، از این رو این پژوهش با هدف مقایسه تاثیرات هیستوپاتولوژیکی دو فلز سنگین Cd و  As بر بافت آبشش ماهی بومی Aphanius sophiae انجام شد. در مجموع تعداد 350 قطعه ماهی در طی دو فصل بهار و تابستان 1390 از رودخانه شور اشتهارد نمونه برداری گردیدند. برای آب شور، 7 تیمار حاوی غلظت های 5، 10 و 20 پی پی ام آرسنیک و 5، 10 و 20 پی پی ام کادمیوم به همراه یک تیمار شاهد در آکواریوم های شیشه ای 30 لیتری با سه تکرار طراحی شدند. در هر آکواریوم تعداد 25 ماهی معرفی گردید. طرح مشابه نیز برای آب شیرین با استفاده از آب شهری کلرزدایی شده طراحی و اجرا گردید. پس از 18 روز دوره مواجهه، از هر یک از تیمارهای آب شور و شیرین تعداد 3 ماهی در محلول بوئن تثبیت و سپس آبشش سمت چپ آنها برای بافت شناسی جداسازی  گردید. تأثیرات در مراحل اولیه هر دو تیمار مورد بررسی شامل جداشدن لایه اپیتلیال، افزایش تعداد سلول های موکوسی و چسبیدن لاملاهای ثانویه بود. نتایج نشان داد که در تیمار آب شیرین شدت این تغییرات بیشتر از آب شور بود. نکروزه شدن سلول های آبششی، گرزی شدن سر تیغه های آبششی، هیپرپلازی و به‌هم چسبیدن تیغه های اولیه و ثانویه با شدت بیشتری در تیمار آب شیرین مشاهده شد. داده های حاصل براساس آنالیز چند متغیره Two-way NPMANOVA در نرم افزار  Past مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می توان نتیجه گیری نمود که کاهش غلظت نمک و به دنبال آن کاهش سختی آب تلفات را به میزان 4/11 برابر افزایش می‌دهد و منجر به افزایش اثرات آسیب های بافتی می گردد.

عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of histopathological changes on gill of Aphanius sophiae in arsenic and cadmium toxicity in saltwater and freshwater

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Ariyaee 1
  • A.H. Hamidian 1
  • S. Eagderi 2
  • S. Asharfi 1
1 Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj.
2 Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj.
چکیده [English]

In aquatic ecosystems, pollutants including heavy metals cause pathological alternations in fishes. As, the impacts of pollutants are affected by chemical properties of water, this study was conducted to compare the histopathological effects of two heavy metals As and Cd on Gill structure of Aphanius sophiae. A total of 350 specimens were collected from the Shoor River of Eshtehard during the spring and summer of 2011. For saltwater experiments seven treatments including 5, 10 and 20 ppm of As and 5, 10 and 20 ppm of Cd plus a control one were prepared in 30-L glass aquariums with three replicates. Twenty five fish specimens were introduced into each aquarium. Similar experiments were designed for freshwater treatments using dechlorinated tap water. After 18 days of exposure, three specimens were sampled from each treatment and fixed into Boein fixative solution and left gill were removed for histological preparation. The observations of prepared histological sections showed alterations including epithelial lifting, increasing goblet cells and fusion of secondary lamellae in both treatments. Result revealed that the severity of these changes in freshwater was more than saltwater treatment. Necrosis, hyperplasia, fusion of first and secondary lamellae had been intensively occurred in freshwater treatments. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis Two-way NPMANOVA in Past software. It was concluded that decreasing salinity, which led to a decrease in water hardness can proliferate the losses rate of 11/4 times and histopathological effects as a result of As and Cd pollution.

1- Abdoli, A. (1989). Freshwater fishes of Iran. Printing, Publishing Museum of Nature and Wildlife of Iran. 377pp.
2- Adil, A.Wani, M. Sikdar-Bar, K. Borana, H.A. Khan, S.S.M. Andrabi and Pervaiz, P.A. (2011). Histopathological Alterations Induced in Gill Epithelium of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Exposed to Copper Sulphate. Society of Applied Sciences, Vol, 2, No, 2. pp:278-282.
3- Amin, R. (1998). Effects of heavy metals on fish. Fisheries expert discussions. Bachelor discussions of Department of Fisheries and the environment. Tehran University.
4- Atabati, A. Keykhosravi, A. and Vatandoos, J. (2009). Toxic effects of various concentrations of zinc and copper in the liver and gills of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Twelfth Conference of Environmental Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health: 2628-2637.
5- Baron, H. Erol, C. Ilhan, A. and Ertugrul, T. (2012). Assessment of acute toxicity and histopathology of the fungicide captan in Rainbow trout. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, Vol, 64, No, 3. pp: 175-179.
6- Cerqureira, C.C.C. and Fernandes, M.N. (2002). Gill tissue recovery after copper exposure and blood parameter response in the tropical fish Prochilodus scofa. Ecotox. Environ. Saf, Vol, 52, No, 2. pp: 83-91.
7- Clark, R.B. (1986). Marine pollution Clarendon Press. Oxford London. pp: 64-82.
8- Coad, B. W. (2013). Freshwater Fishes of Iran (Available at http://www.briancoad.com) (accessed on 11 July 2013).
9- Daoust, D. Godard, P. Devaux, J. Legras, R. and Strazielle, C. (1994). Chemical modification of poly (ether ether ketone) for size exclusion chromatography at room temperature: 2. On the reliability of the derivatization procedure for PEEK molecular-mass determination-application to PEEK-carbon fibre composite. Polymer, Vol, 35, No, 25. pp: 5498-5503.
10- Evans, DH. (1993). The physiology of fishes. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
11- Karthikeyan, S. Palaniappan, P.R. and Sabhanayakam, S. (2007). Influence of pH and water hardness upon nickel accumulation in edible fish Cirrhinus mrigala. Journal of Environmental Biology, Vol, 28, No, 2. pp: 489-492.
12- Koca, S. Koca, Y.B. Yildiz, S. and Gurcu, B. (2008). Genotoxic and histopathological effects of water pollution on two fish species, Barbus capito pectoralis and Chondrostoma nasus in the Büyük Menderes river, Turkey. Biological Trace Element Research, Vol, 122, No, 3. pp: 276–291.
13- Lappivaara, J. Nikinmaa, M. and Tuurala, H. (1995). Arterial oxygen tension and the structure of the secondary lamellae of the gills in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after acute exposure to zinc and during recovery. Aquat. Toxicol , Vol, 32, No, 4. pp: 321-331.
14- Lee, YH. and Stuebing, RB. (1990). Heavy metal contamination in the river toad, Bufo Juxtasper (Inger), near a copper mine in east Malaysia. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol, 45, No, 2. pp: 272–279.
15- Mansouri, B., Ebrahimpour, M. Babaei, H. 2011a. Bioaccumulation and elimination of nickel in the organs of black fish (Capoeta fusca). Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol, 28, No, 4. pp: 361–368.
16- Mansouri, B., Ebrahimpour, M. Babaei,H. 2011b. Determine of heavy metals in different tissues of Black Fish (Capoeta fusca) in central part Qanats of Birjand. Veterinary Journal (Pajouhesh and Sazandegi), No, 89. pp: 45-52
17- Magare, SR. Patil, HT. (2000). Effect of pesticides on oxygen consumption, red blood cell count and metabolites of a fish, Puntius ticto. Environ Ecol, Vol, 18, No, 5. pp: 891–894.
18- Naji, T. Safaeian, Sh. Rostami, M. and Sabrjo, M. (2008). Effects of zinc sulfate on gill tissues of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Environmental Science and Technology, Vol, 9, No, 2. pp: 29-36.
19- Nouri, J. Ferdowsi, S. Manahan, S. (1992). Chemistry of environment, First press, Tehran. lamic Azad University Publication Center.
20- Oliveira-Filho, E.C. Muniz, D.H.F. and Ferreira, M.F.N. (2010). Cesar Koppe Grisolia evaluation of acute toxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of a nickel mining waste to Oreochromis niloticus. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology , Vol, 85, No, 5. pp: 467-471.
21- Oliveira ribeiro, C.A. Guimaraes, J.R.D. and Pfeiffer, W.C. (1996). Accumulation and Distribution of Inorganic Mercury in a Tropical Fish (Trichomycterus zonatus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol, 34, No, 2. pp: 190–195.
22- Oronsaye, J. A. O. and Brafield, A.E. (1984). The effect of dissolved cadmium on the chloride cells of the gills of the stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Journal of Fish Biology , Vol, 25, No, 2. pp: 253-258.
23- Posti, I and Sedigh Marvasti, A. (2011). An Atlas of Fish Histology Normal and Pathological Features. (F. Takashi Hibiya). Tehran University Press. (Original work published 1984)
24- Pourahamad, J. and O’Brien, P. J. (2000). A comparison of hepatocyte cytotoxic mechanisms for Cu2+, and Cd2+. Toxicol , Vol, 143, No, 3. pp: 263-273.
25- Pratap, H.B. and Wendlaar–Bonga, S.E.W. (1993). Effects of ambient and dietary Cadmium on Pavement cells, Chloride cell and Na+-k+ ATPase activity in the gills of freshwater, teleost, Oreochromismoss ambicusat normal and high Cadmium levels in the ambient Water. Aquat. Toxicol, Vol, 26, No, 3. pp: 133-150.
26- Pyle, G.G. Swanson, S.M. and Lehmkuht, D.M. (2002). The influence of water hardness, pH, and suspended solids on nickel toxicity to larva fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Water Air and Soil Pollution, Vol, 133, No, 1-4. pp: 215–226.
27- Reddy, M.L. Reif, J.S. Bachand, A. and Ridgway, S.H. (2001). Opportunities for using Navay marine mammals to explore associations between organochlorine contaminates and unfavorable effects on reproduction. Science of the Total Environment, Vol, 274, No, 3. pp: 171-182.
28- Roy, D. Ghosh, D. Kumar Mandal, D. (2013). Cadmium induced histopathology in the olfactory epithelium of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch). International Journal of Aquatic Biology, Vol, 1, No, 5. pp: 221-227.
29- Skidmore, J.F. and Towell, P.W.A. (1972). Toxic effects of zinc sulphate on the gills of rainbow trout. Water Research, Vol, 6, No, 3. pp: 271-230.
30- van der Ost, R. Beber J. and Vermeulen, N.P.E. (2003). Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol, 13, No, 2. pp: 57- 149.
31- Varanka, z. Rojik, I. Nemcso,k, J. and Abraham, M. (2001). Biochemical and morphological change in caro (Cyprinus carpio) liver following exposure to copper sulfate and tannic acid. Comp. Biochem. Physiol part. C, Vol, 128, No, 3. pp: 467-478.
32- Visoottiviseth, P. Thamamaruitkun, T. Sahaphong, S. Riengrojpitak, S. and Kruatrachue, M. (1999). Histopathological effects of triphenyltin hydroxide on liver, kidney and gill of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica). Appl. Organometal Chem, Vol, 13, No, 10. pp: 749-763.
33- Wani, A.A. Sikdar-Bar, M. Borana, K. Khan, H.A. Andrabi, S.S.M. et al., (2011). Histopatological Alterations Induced in Gill Epithelium of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, Exposed to Copper Sulphate. Asian J. Exp. Biol. Sci, Vol, 2, No, 2. pp: 278-282.
34- Weiner, E.R. (2007). Applications of environmental chemistry: A practical guide. 2nd ed. CRC Press. Boca Raton. pp. 352.