عنوان مقاله [English]
Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals with the characteristic of accumulation and bio-magnification in food chains. Isfahan is an important industrial province in Iran with various sources of mercury contamination. However, biological monitoring of mercury in the environment has yet to be conducted. Birds, which are exposed to mercury by different ways, including direct contact with contaminated water and food, are good biological indicators. The aim of this study was to investigate mercury contamination in some of the wild birds in Isfahan city and Zayandehroud River. The effect of trophic levels on the bioaccumulation of mercury in the body of these birds was explored. 40 samples of birds were collected in different areas and the amount of mercury was measured in kidney, liver and hyperpnea, using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Amongst the three organs, hyperpnea showed the highest amount of mercury with the average amount of 2002.3 ppb and kidney showed the lowest with the average of 1284 ppb. Animal consuming birds accumulated more mercury in their tissues and vegetarians showed the lowest value. The results indicated the presence of mercury in Isfahan environment, therefore, it is necessary to monitor and manage heavy metals in the environment including Zayandehroud River.
1 - Ahmadi-Golsepidi, M. (2008). Measurements of trace amounts of mercury species in environmental samples, using cold vapor atomic absorption method . Manster of Sciences Thesis. Isfahan: Isfahan University.
2 - Bearhop, S., Waldron, S., Thompson, D., & Furness, R. (2000). Bioamplification of mercury in great skua Catharacta skua chicks: the influence of trophic status as determined by stable isotope signatures of blood and feathers. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40(2), 181-185.
3 - Beijer, K., & Jernelov, A. (1979). Methylation of mercury in aquatic environments: Elsevier, North-Holland, Amsterdam.
4 - Di Natale, F., Lancia, A., Molino, A., Di Natale, M., Karatza, D., & Musmarra, D. (2006). Capture of mercury ions by natural and industrial materials. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 132(2-3), 220-225.
5 - Furness, R. W., & Greenwood, J. J. D. (1993). Birds as monitors of environmental change: Chapman & Hall London.
Gray, S. (2002). Biomagnification in marine systems: the perspective of an ecologist. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 45,46-52.
6 - Hernández, L. M., G., G., Fernández, M., Jiménez, B., González, M. J., Baos, R., et al. (1999). Accumulation of heavy metals and As in wetland birds in the area around Doñana National Park affected by the Aznalcollar toxic spill. Science of the Total Environment, 242, 293-308.
7 - Holm, S. (1979). A simple sequentially rejective multiple test procedure. Scandinavian journal of statistics, 6, 65-70.
8 - Karimpour, M., Afyuni, M., & Esmaili- Sari, A. (2010). Effect of Sewage Sludge on Mercury Concentration in Soil and corn Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Water and Soil Science, 14(52), 115-123.
9 - Keskinkan, O., Goksu, M., Basibuyuk, M., & Forster, C. (2004). Heavy metal adsorption properties of a submerged aquatic plant. Bioresource Technology, 92(2), 197-200.
10 - Kojadinovic, J., Bustamante, P., Churlaud, C., Cosson, R. P., & Le Corre, M. (2007). Mercury in seabird feathers: Insight on dietary habits and evidence for exposure levels in the western Indian Ocean. Science of the Total Environment, 384(1-3), 194-204.
11 - Kumar, V., & Gill, K. D. (2009). Aluminium neurotoxicity: neurobehavioural and oxidative aspects. Archives of Toxicology 83(11), 965-978.
12 - Nicholson, J., & Osborn, D. (1983). Kidney lesions in pelagic seabirds with high tissue levels of cadmium and mercury. Journal of Zoology, 200(1), 99-118.
13 - Ochoa-Acuna, H., Sepulveda, M., & Gross, T. (2002). Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: influence of location, feeding strategy, and taxonomic affiliation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44(4), 340-345.
14 - World Health Organization. (1989). Mercury-environmental aspects. Environmental health criteria, 86, 1-136.
15 - Rand, G. M. (1995). Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology: effects, environmental fate, and risk assessment: Taylor & Francis Group.
16 - Savinov, V. M., Gabrielsen, G. W., & Savinova, T. (2003). Cadmium, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury in seabirds from the Barents Sea: levels, inter-specific and geographical differences. Science of the Total Environment, 306, 133-158.
17 - Schweiger, L., Stadler, F., & Bowes, C. (2006). Poisoning Wildlife: The Reality of Mercury Pollution: National Wildlife Federation, Reston, Virginia, USA.
18 - Taber, K. H., & Hurley, R. A. (2008). Mercury exposure: effects across the lifespan. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 20(4), 384-389.
19 - Thompson, D. (1996). Mercury in birds and terrestrial mammals. Environmental contaminants in wildlife: interpreting tissue concentrations, 341-356.
20 - Topolski, B., & Thompson, M. (2010). Digestion of tissue samples for total mercury analysis. HG-015-2.15, Department of Environmental Protection, Florida: http://www.dep.state.fl.us/labs.
21 - Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R., Esmaili-Sari, A., Ghasempouri, S. M., & Savabieasfahani, M. (2009). Mercury levels in selected tissues of three kingfisher species; Ceryle rudis, Alcedo atthis, and Halcyon smyrnensi, from Shadegan Marshes of Iran. Ecotoxicology, 18(3), 319-324.
22 - Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, R., Esmaili-Sari, A., Savabieasfahani, M., & Bahramifar, N. (2009). Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and Little egret (Egretta garzetta) as monitos of mercury contamination in Shadegan Wetlands of south-western Iran. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 166(1), 371-377.
23 - Zillioux, E., Porcella, D., & Benoit, J. (1993). Mercury cycling and effects in freshwater wetland ecosystems. Environmental toxicology and chemistry, 12(12), 2245-2264.
24 - Zolfaghari, G., Esmaili-sari, A., Ghasempouri, S. M., & Kiabi, B. H. (2006). Examination of mercury concentration in the feather of 18 species of birds in southwest Iran. Environmental Research, 104, 258-265.
25 - Zoualfaghari, G. H., Esmaili-Sari, A., Ghasempouri, S. M., Baydokhti, R. R., & Hassanzade- Kiabi, B. (2009). A multispecies-monitoring study about bioaccumulation of mercury in Iranian birds (Khuzestan to Persian Gulf): Effect of taxonomic affiliation and trophic level. Environmental Research, 109(7), 830-836.